At some point in your career (today?!) you will want to learn data structures. It’s not just to ace the technical interview and land your dream job. Learning data structures will help you understand how software works and improve your problemsolving skills. In this tutorial, you will learn the graph data structure in JavaScript.
What is a Graph?
According to Wikipedia, a graph is:
a structure amounting to a set of objects in which some pairs of the objects are in some sense “related”.
A graph consists of a set of nodes, or vertices, connected by edges. An edge consists of a pair of vertices. For example, if we establish a pair between two vertices, A
and B
, we refer t0 this related pairing as an edge. Because they are connected by an edge, A
and B
are adjacent.
The classic analogy for graphs is a map. If you look at a map of the United States interstate system, you will see cities, or vertices, connected by freeways, or edges.
Another standard analogy for graphs is a social network. Imagine your peer group. You are connected to your friends and family, but not all of your friends and family are connected to each other and you are likely not connected to all of their friends and family.
Two Types of Graph

directed, or digraph: A graph with ordered pairs is a directed graph, or digraph. In a graphical (no pun intended) representation, the direction of the edge is drawn with an arrow indicated the direction of traversal.

undirected, or just graph: This is selfexplanatroy, the edges of the graph are not directed.
Degrees & Weight
The degrees of a vertex refers to the number of adjacent vertices.
The weight of an edge represents the cost or the capacity of the edge, such as distance or time between two vertices.
Paths, Loops & Cycles
A path in a graph is a sequence of edges. If vertices A
and B
are connected, and B
and C
are connected, then we establish a path from A
to C
. The length of this path is two as there are two edges connecting A
, B
, and C
.
A loop in a graph occurs when the path of a vertex connects to itself.
A cycle is a path that reconnects to the starting vertex. Using our example above, if we create and edge between C
and A
, then the path from A
to B
to C
to A
is a cycle.
A strongly connected graph occurs when every vertex is connected to every other vertex. Two or more vertices are considered strongly connected when they are connected by paths.
What Problem(s) Does a Graph Solve?

Optimization: We can use the graph data structure in conjunction with an optimization algorithm for determining an optimal path, such as GPS

Network topology: We can use the graph data structure when modeling network topology, such as the internet or your friends on Facebook!
How to Implement a Graph Data Structure in JavaScript
Like a social network, what is important is the relationship between nodes and not necessarily the nodes themselves.
Yes, a tree data structure is a series of nodes in relationship to one another, but graphs differ from trees in that trees always follow the same structure. The relationships between nodes are predetermined: a root with two children. We don’t know what the structure of our graph will look like in advance, so when we implement a graph class, tracking the relationship between vertices is more important than the vertices themselves.
Let’s start with a small and simple data set of four vertices: A
, B
, C
, D
& E
. Let’s say that there are edges between the following vertices:
A → B
A → C
A → D
B → C
B → D
C → D
D → E
We could sketch that out like so…
What is another way we can represent the relationships between data?
In a table! 🏓
X  A  B  C  D  E 

A  X  1  1  1  0 
B  1  X  1  1  0 
C  0  1  X  1  0 
D  1  1  1  X  1 
E  0  0  0  1  X 
This is called an adjacency matrix as it represents which vertices are adjacent to one another. When we inspect row D
, we see that there are edges between D
and A
, B
, C
and E
.
How would we represent this in JavaScript?
Nested arrays! 🐣
[
[`B`, `C`, `D`],
[`A`, `C`, `D`],
[`B`, `D`],
[`A`, `B`, `C`, `E`],
[`D`]
]
But there’s a shortcoming to this approach. How do we track the vertices that correspond to the array indexes?
We need a way to look up our edges…
🤔
{
A: [`B`, `C`, `D`],
B: [`A`, `C`, `D`],
C: [`B`, `D`],
D: [`A`, `B`, `C`, `E`],
E: [`D`]
}
This is what we want our graph to return. Now let’s write a class to do just that.
class Graph {
constructor() {
this.adjacent = {};
}
}
If we declare a new graph, g
…
const g = new Graph();
…and log it…
Graph { adjacent: {} }
We now need methods for adding vertices and edges. We can’t declare edges without vertices, so let’s start with that:
class Graph {
constructor() {
this.adjacent = {};
}
addVertex(v) {
this.adjacent[v] = [];
}
}
Our addVertex
method is simply creating a property, v
, in our adjacent
object, and assigning it an empty array.
If we use our addVertex
method to add the vertices from our adjacency matrix above…
g.addVertex("A");
g.addVertex("B");
g.addVertex("C");
g.addVertex("D");
g.addVertex("E");
…logging our graph will return the following:
Graph { adjacent: { A: [], B: [], C: [], D: [], E: [] } }
Now we need to create our edges.
class Graph {
constructor() {
this.adjacent = {};
}
addVertex(v) {
this.adjacent[v] = [];
}
addEdge(v, w) {
this.adjacent[v].push(w);
this.adjacent[w].push(v);
}
}
Our addEdge()
method is simply accepting two arguments, v
and w
, looking up one and pushing the other into its corresponding array.
Why v
and w
? It’s a mathematic convention in graph theory. 🤷
If we use our addEdge
method to add the edges from our adjacency matrix above…
g.addEdge("A","B");
g.addEdge("A","C");
g.addEdge("A","D");
g.addEdge("B","C");
g.addEdge("B","D");
g.addEdge("C","D");
g.addEdge("D","E");
…logging our graph will return the following:
Graph {
adjacent: {
A: [ 'B', 'C', 'D' ],
B: [ 'A', 'C', 'D' ],
C: [ 'A', 'B', 'D' ],
D: [ 'A', 'B', 'C', 'E' ],
E: [ 'D' ]
}
}
This is a very lightweight implementation of a graph data structure. What if we wanted to return all of our vertices? We would need to use Object.keys()
. Or, we could add an array to our constructor and push our vertices to it within addVertex
:
class Graph {
constructor() {
this.vertices = [];
this.adjacent = {};
}
addVertex(v) {
this.vertices.push(v);
this.adjacent[v] = [];
}
addEdge(v, w) {
this.adjacent[v].push(w);
this.adjacent[w].push(v);
}
}
We access our vertices array with g.vertices
.
We could add one more feature to allow us to quickly return the number of edges in our graph.
class Graph {
constructor() {
this.vertices = [];
this.adjacent = {};
this.edges = 0;
}
addVertex(v) {
this.vertices.push(v);
this.adjacent[v] = [];
}
addEdge(v, w) {
this.adjacent[v].push(w);
this.adjacent[w].push(v);
this.edges++;
}
}
We access our edges with g.edges
.
Data Structures in JavaScript: Graph
In this tutorial you learned how to implement a graph data structure in JavaScript. In the next tutorial, we will implement traversal methods for breadthfirst and depthfirst searches. Stay tuned!